Indian Nobel Prize Winners

2 years ago Aparna Nair 0

Indian Nobel Prize Winners

The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards granted on “those who gave the greatest benefit of humanity”. In the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, Peace and Economics.

Institute of Alfred Nobel’s which specified that his fortune is used to create a series of prizes, known as the Nobel Prizes.
They are widely recognized as one of the most prestigious honors awarded in the fields as mentioned above.

The Nobel laureates of Indian citizens at the time they were awarded the Nobel Prize as following:-

[1] Rabindranath Tagore

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In 1913 the Rabindranath Tagore won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
He received the award because of his extremely sensitive, and beautiful verse, by which, with perfect skill. He has made his poetic thought, showed in his English words, a part of the literature of the West.

Rabindranath Tagore was born on 7 May 1861, Calcutta, India. He is a leader of the Brahmo Samaj, which was a new religious in nineteenth-century Bengal. In which attempted a revival of the ultimate monistic basis of Hinduism as laid down in the Upanishads.

Rabindranath Tagore’s writing is deep root in both Indian and Western learning traditions. Apart from a story in the form of poetry, songs, stories, and dramas.
It also includes portrayals of ordinary people’s lives, literary criticism, and philosophy.
Rabindranath Tagore originally wrote in Bengali, but later reached a broad public in the West then recasting his poetry in English.

[2] C. V. Raman

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In 1930 the C. V. Raman won the Nobel Prize in Physics.
He received the award for his work on the scattering of light and the discovery of the effect named after him.

C.V Raman was an Indian physicist born on 7 November 1888 at Thiruvanaikoil, Tiruchirappalli, in the former Madras Province in India.
He discovered that when the light traverses a transparent material, some of the deflected light changes in wavelength. This phenomenon, subsequently known as Raman scattering.
In 1954, India honored him with its highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna.

[3] Mother Teresa

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In 1979 the Mother Teresa won the Nobel Prize in peace.

She received the award for work undertaken in the struggle to overcome poverty and pain. In which also constitutes a threat to peace.

Mother Teresa was born on 26 August 1910 Üsküp, Kosovo Vilayet, Ottoman Empire. After living in Macedonia for the eighteen years, she went to Ireland and then to India, where she lived for most of her life.

Teresa founded the Missionaries of Charity in 1950, a Roman Catholic religious congregation. In which 2012 consisted of over 4,500 sisters and was active in 133 countries.
They work for people dying of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and leprosy. Soup kitchens, dispensaries and children and family counseling programs, orphanages, and schools.
Members must adhere to the vows of purity, poverty, and obedience, as well as a fourth vow, give to “wholehearted free service to the poorest of the poor.”

[4] Amartya Sen

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In 1998 the Amartya Sen won the Nobel Prize in economics.

He received the award for his contributions to welfare economics and Bharat Ratna in 1999 for his work in welfare economics.

Amartya Sen was born on November 3, 1933, Santiniketan in a Bengali family in Manikganj.
Sen has given contributions to welfare economics, social choice theory, social justice, economic. And  also economic principles of scarcities, and indexes of the measure of well-being of citizens of developing countries.
He is currently working in the Thomas W. Lamont University Professor and Professor of Economics and Philosophy at Harvard University. He worked as the chancellor of Nalanda University.

[5] Kailash Satyarthi

In 2014 the awarded jointly gave to Kailash Satyarthi and Malala Yousafzai in peace.
They received the award for their struggle against the abolition of children and young people and the right of all children to education.

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(1) Kailash Satyarthi

Kailash Satyarthi was born on 11 January 1954 at Vidisha, Madhya Pradesh, India.
He is an Indian children’s rights and education advocate and an activist against child labor. He founded the Bachpan Bachao Andolan in 1980 and had work to protect the children for more than 83,000 children from 144 countries. His work is to recognize through the various national and international honors.

It is large because of Satyarthi work and activism that the International Labour Organization. Adopted Convention No. 182 on the worst forms of child labor, which is an important guideline for governments around the world.

(2) Malala Yousafzai

Malala Yousafzai was born on 12 July 1997 at Mingora, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. She is activist for female education and the youngest-ever Nobel Prize laureate.
She struggles against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education. Aged 17 at the time.

She is known mainly for human rights support for education and for women in her native Swat Valley in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of northwest Pakistan. Where the local Taliban had at times restricted girls from attending school. Yousafzai support has since grown into an international movement.

The Nobel Laureates born in British India or who are of Indian origin but subsequently non-citizens of India. But, they are still usually included in lists of Indian Nobel laureates.

[1] Har Gobind Khorana

In 1968 Har Gobind Khorana won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine along with Robert W. Holley and Marshall W. Nirenberg.
They received the award for research that shows how the order of nucleotides in nucleic acids. In which carry the genetic code of the cell, control the cell synthesis of proteins.

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(1) Har Gobind Khorana

Har Gobind Khorana was born 9 January 1922, was an Indian-American biochemist. Khorana was born in Raipur, British India and later moved to become an Indian citizen after the partition of 1947. Then after became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1966. And Known for first to demonstrate the role of nucleotides in protein synthesis

(2) Robert William Holley

Robert William Holley was born on January 28, 1922, in Urbana, Illinois. He is an American biochemist. He got the Nobel Prize for describing the structure of alanine transfer RNA, linking DNA and protein synthesis.

(3) Marshall Warren Nirenberg

Marshall was born on April 10, 1927, in New York City. He is an American biochemist. He is Known for the Contribution to solving the genetic code.

[2] Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar

In 1983 Subrahmanyan won the Nobel Prize in Physics along with William Alfred.
They received the award for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the formation and evolution of the stars.

(1) Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar

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Chandrasekhar was born on October 19, 1910, was an Indian-American astrophysicist. His mathematical treatment of stellar evolution produced many of the best current theoretical models of the later evolutionary stages of massive star and black holes.

(2) William Alfred Fowler

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William Alfred was born on August 9, 1911, was an American nuclear physicist, later astrophysicist, won the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physics.
Fowler most popular paper was “Synthesis of the Elements in Stars,” coauthored with E. Margaret Burbidge, Geoffrey Burbidge, and Fred Hoyle, was published in 1957 by a group led by Fred Hoyle.

[3] Venkatraman Ramakrishnan

In 2009 Venkatraman won the Nobel Prize in chemistry along with Thomas A. Steitz and Ada Yonath.
They received the award for the studies of structure and function of the ribosome.

(1) Venkatraman Ramakrishnan

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Venkatraman was born in 1952, at Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India. He is an Indian-American-British structural biologist of Indian origin. He has worked as a group leader at the Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology (LMB) on the Cambridge Biomedical Campus, UK. And he is also the Deputy Director.

(2) Thomas A. Steitz

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Thomas was born on August 23, 1940, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He is best known for his pioneering work on the ribosomes. He is a biochemist, a Sterling Professor of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry at Yale University. And investigator at Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

(3) Ada Yonath

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Ada was born on 22 June 1939 in Jerusalem, British Mandate of Palestine. She is best known for Cryo bio-crystallography. She is the current leader of the Helen and Milton A. Kimmelman Center for Biomolecular Structure and Assembly of Weizmann Institute of Science.

The Nobel laureates with Indian linkages – those foreigners who were born in India and those who are of Indian ancestry. And also who were citizens in India when they became winners of the Nobel Prize.

[1] Ronald Ross

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In 1902 Ronald won the Noble Price in Physiology or Medicine.
They received the award for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it inserts the organism. He set the foundation for successful research on disease and methods of fighting it.

Ronald was born on 13 May 1857 Almora, North-Western Provinces, British India. He Discovering that mosquitoes transmit the malaria parasite.

[2] Rudyard Kipling

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In 1907 Rudyard won the Nobel Price in Literature. He received the award for consideration of the power of observation, creativity of imagination, virility of ideas and an extraordinary talent for description. Which characterize the creations of this world-famous author.

Rudyard was born on 30 December 1865, BombayPresidency, British India. Rudyard was one of the most famous writers in the United Kingdom, in both prose and verse, in the 19th and 20th centuries. He works of fiction include The Jungle Book, Kim, and many short stories.

[3] 14th Dalai Lama

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In 1989 Dalai won the Nobel Price in Peace. He received the award for his struggle for the liberation of Tibet. He consistently has defended the use of violence. Instead advocated peaceful solutions base on tolerance and mutual respect to preserving the historical and cultural heritage of his people.

Tenzin Gyatso was born on 17 November 1950 and Dalai Lamas. It is prominent monks of the Gelug school, the current school of Tibetan Buddhism which is nominally overseen by the Ganden Tripas.

The 14th and current Dalai Lama is Tenzin Gyatso. The Dalai Lama is considered to be the successor to a series of tulkus who are considered to be incarnations of Avalokiteśvara, the Bodhisattva of Compassion, called Chenrezig in Tibetan.
The Dalai Lama has received numerous awards over his spiritual and political career

[4] V. S. Naipaul

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In 2001 V. S. Naipaul won the Nobel Price in Literature.
They received an award for having a united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that enforce us to see the presence of suppressed histories.
Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul was born on 17 August 1932 in Chaguanas in Trinidad.
He had written more than 30 books, both of fiction and nonfiction, over some 50 years.