Avian influenza

2 years ago Mansi Saner 0

Avian Influenza

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What is Avian Infectious?

Avian influenza is an infectious disease of birds which is caused by type strain of the influenza virus. It is known as bird flu. Avian influenza refers to flu affected by viruses that infect birds and make them ill.
The virus spreads through the infected birds, via their saliva, feces, nasal secretions, and feed.

Avian flu is a viral infection spread from bird to bird. A deadly strain of avian influenza H5N1 continues to spread among poultry in Egypt and some parts of Asia. Technically, H5N1 is a highly pathogenic Avian Flu (HPAI) virus. It’s deadly to most birds.

H5N1 is a type of influenza virus that causes a highly infectious, severe respiratory disease in birds called bird flu Human cases of H5N1 avian influenza occasionally occur, but it’s hard to transmit the infection from person to person.

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According to the WHO(World Health Organizations)

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From 2003 to 2016, there have been 633 laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza An(H5N1) virus strain.
The 452 cases resulted in death till 2016. Cases (856) have been reported in 15 countries.
Azerbaijan (8), Bangladesh (8), Cambodia (56), Canada(1), China (53), Djibouti(1), Egypt (356), Indonesia (199), Iraq (3), Laos (2), Nigeria (1), Myanmar (1), Pakistan (3), Turkey (12), Thailand (25), Viet Nam (127).

Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

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Avian influenza viruses usually don’t infect humans, in rare cases of human infection with these viruses reported. Infected birds shed avian flu virus in their saliva and mucous.

When Human infections with Bird Flu viruses when the virus gets into the person eyes, mouth or nose or it inhaled. It can occur if a virus is in the air, and a person breathes it in or while a person touches something that has the virus on it then touches their month.nose or eyes.

Rare human infection with some avian viruses has occurred most frequently after unprotected contact with surfaces contaminated with bird flu viruses. Illness in people has ranged from mild to critical.

The spread of this disease a virus from one ill person to another has been reported a very rare case and has limited, inefficient and not sustained. Because of the possibility that avian flu A viruses could change and gain the ability to spread quickly in people, monitoring for human infection and person to person transmission is extremely critical for Public health.

Signs and symptoms

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Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of low pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI)
Virus infections in humans have ranged of conjunctivitis to influences like illness to lower respiratory disease (pneumonia) requiring hospitalization. Such as fever, cough, muscles aches, sore throat, gastric.

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Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A virus infections in human have associated with a wide range of illness of conjunctivitis only to influenza-like illness, to severe respiratory illness with the multi-organ disease. e.g. shortness of breath, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress, difficulty breathing, viral pneumonia, respiratory failure.
Sometimes followed by nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and sometimes neurologic changes. LPAI H7N9 and HPAI Asian H5N1 have responsible for most human illness worldwide to date, including the most severe illnesses and deaths.

Humans with avian flu have the following signs and symptoms

1. A cough, usually dry
2. High fever, over 38C
3. Aching bones, joints, and muscles
4. Bleeding from the nose
5. Loss of appetite
6. Runny nose
7. Sleeping difficulties
8. Blocked nose
9. Chest pain
10. Cold sweats and chills
11. Fatigue
12. Headache
13. Bleeding from the gums
14. Stomach upset, sometimes diarrhea
15. Breathing difficulties
16. Sputum is sometimes bloody.

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Causes of Bird flu

Humans can become infected and ill with bird flu after coming into contact with infected birds.

1. Touching infected birds
2. In touch with the feces of infected birds
3. Inhaling dried feces dust from infected birds
4. De-feathering infected birds
5. Touching secretions from infected birds
6. Slaughtering or butchering infected poultry
7. Preparing poultry for cooking, if the bird is infected.
8. Markets where birds are sold. If the birds are affected, those who handle them have a risk of becoming ill.

Detecting Avian Influenza

Clinical signs can not diagnose avian influenza A virus infection in humans and symptoms alone with laboratory testing is must required.

Avian influenza A virus infection is diagnosed by collecting a swab from the nose or throat of the infected person after the first few days of illness. This specimen is sent to a laboratory. The laboratory surveys for avian influenza A virus either by doing a molecular test, by trying to grow the virus or may be both.

For critically ill patients, collection and testing of lower respiratory tract specimens may lead to a diagnosis of avian influenza virus infection. Some patients who are no longer sick or fully recover, have the difficult to find avian influenza in the specimen.

Sometimes it may be possible to diagnose avian influenza A virus infection by looking for evidence of the body immune response to the virus infection by detecting particular antibodies the body has generated in response to the virus.
It is not always an option because it requires two blood specimens one taken during the first week of illness and another taken after 3-4 weeks.
Also, it can take several weeks to verify the results, and testing performs in a specialized laboratory.

Patients should:
1. Rest
2. Drink lots of fluids
3. Receive proper nutrition
4. Receive medications for pain and fever

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What you can do

There are measures each can take to minimize the spread of flu, bird flu, and many other infections, these include:

1. Hand hygiene – Wash your hands regularly with warm water and soap before and after using the toilet, and before preparing meals. Wash your hands after coughing.

2. If you cough into your hand then touch things, other people may become infected if they touch surfaces you spoiled.

3. If you are sick, stay away from public places and avoid communication with people.

4. When preparing foods, do not use the same utensils for cooked and raw meats.

5. Do not go near a sick bird or Death bird.